- Scientific Name: Polygala japonica Houtt.
- Ref: Nat. Hist. 2(10):89. 1779
- Synonyms: Polygala hondoensis Nakai; P. loureroi Gardner & Champ.; P. taquetii H.Lév.
- English Common Name: dwarf milkwort
- Chinese Common Name: 瓜子金 guāzǐ∙jīn, 日本远志 Rìběn yuǎnzhì
- Japanese Common Name: ヒメハギ [姫萩] himehagi
- Family: Polygalaceae
- Genus: Polygala
- Distribution: Grassy areas on slopes of hills, field margins; 800-2100 m. Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [NE India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Russia (E Siberia), Sri Lanka, N Vietnam].
Herbs perennial, 15-20 cm tall. Stems and branches erect or decumbent, brown-green or green, longitudinally angular, curved pubescent. Petiole ca. 1 mm, pubescent; leaf blade ovate or ovate-lanceolate, rarely linear-lanceolate, 1-2.3(-3) cm × (3-)5-9 mm, thickly papery or subleathery, both surfaces glabrous or pubescent, midvein raised abaxially, impressed adaxially, lateral veins 3-5 pairs, raised on both surfaces, pubescent, base broadly cuneate to rounded, margin entire, apex obtuse, mucronate. Racemes opposite to leaves, or extra-axillary, uppermost raceme lower than apices of stems. Pedicel ca. 7 mm, thin, pubescent; bracteoles caducous, basal, lanceolate. Sepals 5, persistent, ciliate; outer sepals 3, lanceolate, ca. 4 mm, abaxially pubescent; inner sepals 2, petaloid, ovate to oblong, ca. 6.5 × 3 mm, base unguiculate, apex rounded, mucronate. Petals 3, connate at base, white to purple; lateral petals oblong, ca. 6 mm, inside pubescent at base; keel apex with cymbiform, fimbriate appendages. Stamens 8; filaments ca. 6 mm, united throughout, forming an open staminal sheath, ciliate; anthers sessile. Ovary obovoid, ca. 2 mm in diam., winged; style ca. 5 mm, curved; stigmas 2, separate, one apical, other one lateral and 0.5-1 mm lower down style. Capsule orbicular, ca. 6 mm in diam., shorter than inner sepals, margin broadly winged, not ciliate, apex retuse, with rostrum, wing with transverse veins. Seeds 2, black, ovoid, ca. 3 mm, ca. 1.5 mm in diam., densely white pubescent; strophiole unequal, 2-lobed, decurrent, sparsely pubescent. Fl. Apr-May, fr. May-Aug. 2n = 14*, 42. (Flora of China)